These pieces incorporated at least two of the following elements:
(i) light/dark grid-like formal backgrounds, or color-based expressionistic backgrounds,
(ii) monotonic letter stencils,
(iii) symbols of effort, cultural games, or direction in a narrative (such as arrows between blocks of words),
(iv) hand-written phrases flowing around the picture plane.
In this work, the combination of any two or more of these elements represented an exploration of mass in symbolic space (i.e., meaning). This work hypothesized that communication could be mapped in time dynamically, and this mapping used to extrapolate the blocks of meaning producing a trajectory in symbolic space.